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Hip-Hop Out-Charted Pop By 227 Weeks in 2017

It may come as no surprise, but hip-hop was the most popular genre of music in 2017, by an impressive margin. It was reported earlier in th...

Tracking Jay-Z's Transition From Player to Family Man Via His 320 Lyrical Beyoncé Lyrical References

Jay-Z has mentioned or explicitly referenced Beyoncé 320 times in song during the course of his rap career, a figure accumulated via 69 tracks between 1998 and 2018. The nature of these mentions has evolved alongside Jay-Z the artist and Shawn Carter the man, beginning with sly double meanings and subliminal easter eggs, transitioning into aspirational statements and observations, and maturing to address issues of family, sex, and infidelity, three topics he scoffed at before Beyoncé entered his life.

Since they're about to head back out On The Run together, it's a great time to visualise and explain how and why the way Jay speaks about Beyoncé on wax has changed. This article only includes explicit, obvious references. Tracks like "Excuse Me Miss" and his verse on "Frontin'" could be attributed to Beyoncé, but there is too much ambiguity to be certain.

How Often Jay Mentions Bey During His Career

Here is a breakdown of the nature of Jay-Z's 320 lyrical Beyoncé references.


  • Observational: These are all-purpose, simple references or mentions. On 2009's "Venus Vs. Mars" there are 14 observational references, simple bars like "She used to have a man" and "Shorty played the piano".
  • Speaking Directly to Beyoncé: "03' Bonnie & Clyde" is a great example, with ad-libs like "Talk to 'em B" and bars like "I ain't perfect, nobody walking this earth's surface is / But girlfriend, work with the kid". 
  • Punchline / Double Meaning: Early examples include "I'm Destiny's Child, my fate's been sealed", and "Get your independent ass out of here".
  • Aspirational: References and mentions that centre on their relationship, or just Beyoncé, as the pinnacle of human existence. "Upgrade U" has 9, including "Cause that rock on ya finger's like a tumor".
  • Aesthetic: Lyrics that centre on Beyoncé's physical appearance. On 2011's "That's My Bitch": "Call Larry Gagosian, you belong in museums".
  • Sexual: 2013's "Drunk In Love": "Your breastes my breakfast / We goin' in"
  • Family: When Jay's references switched from girlfriend to future wife to wife. The "Family" section and graph has more information.

How The Nature of Jay-Z's Beyoncé References Have Changed Over Time

The content arc Jay's career has taken since his debut in 1996 is unlike any other discography in rap music. He began as a conscious gangster rapper, then spent the rest of the 2000s embracing violence, hyper-consumerism, and cold-hearted dealings with women. Bars like "I fuck the most hoes out of New York State" (2000), "Hot boy Jigga man scorch your bitch" (1999), and this inexplicable line on 2001's The Blueprint centrepiece "Heart Of The City (Ain't No Love)", "Get a couple of chicks, get 'em to try to do E / hopefully they'll menage before I reach my garage" are just a drop in the ocean of Jay's cold and callous treatment of women pre-2002. 

While there were hidden gems in his early work that betrayed this cartoonishly masculine character ("Soon You'll Understand", "You Must Love Me"), the overwhelming bulk of his music was emotionally barren. 2001's "Song Cry" signalled a change in his lyrical content that became permanent on 2002's The Blueprint 2, with "03' Bonnie & Clyde", "Excuse Me Miss", and his guest spot on Pharrell's "Frontin'".

This change in content is reflected in the way he began to modify how he spoke about his future wife Beyoncé, and it's no stretch to say she was pivotal in Jay's mid-career maturation.

Both graphs deliver the same information, just in slightly different ways. If these are confusing, I've broken down every category individually below, with simple graphs. 


1998-2002: 0
2003-2008: 4
2009-2013: 24
2014-2018: 4

If there is one statistic taken away from this article, let it be that Jay very rarely spoke of Beyoncé in a sexual way until after they were married. The only times prior were on "Deja Vu", their collaboration in which Jay raps "Now I bag B", and Beyoncé confirms by ad-libbing "Boy you hurting that", on 2007's "Party Life" when Jay riffs "I'm on her bra strap, she's on my dick", and "She's my little quaterback, ya dig / Cause I'm all that in the sack", and a solitary reference on "Oh Girl (Remix)", "Until that day you said close your eyes, let me ride you".

Once they wed in 2008, it was open season, and both traded sexual bars on a number of tracks, most notably 2013's "Drunk In Love", which features 15 sexual references from Jay alone. He also slipped 5 into 2017's "MaNyFacedGod", 5 into their 2013 collaboration "Part II (On The Run)", and 3 into Justin Timberlake's "Murder".

Being sexually explicit about your wife on wax may not appear to be the most respectful angle, but with the exception of 4 references in 2007, Jay waited until they were married 5 years before he began using sex with Beyoncé as more than a passing mention or one-off bar.


1998-2002: 0
2003-2008: 4
2009-2013: 28
2014-2018: 21

In 2003, at the end of what was meant to be his final recorded track, "My 1st Song", Jay shouts out a bunch of people during the outro. Just after he says "My whole family, my nephew, cousin Angie, whassup? Ti-Ti" he also throws in 4 "Bey"'s, before immediately shouting out his mother. Trawl through every Jay-Z song prior to 2002, there has never been a mention of a girlfriend being part of his family, in fact, he spits the opposite ("Now what I look like giving a chick half my trap / Like she wrote half my raps / Yeah, I'm having that").

The next family references came in "New Day" in 2011, and family was the most common way Jay referred to Beyoncé after their marriage. It was a major theme on 2017's 4:44, with 20 separate attributions. For a rapper who once spat "Don't get mad at me, I don't love 'em I fuck 'em / I don't chase 'em I duck 'em / I replace 'em with another one", the growth required to then spit "We're supposed to laugh 'til our heart stops / And then meet in a space where the dark stop / And let love light the way" is exponential.

Punchlines / Double Meanings

1998-2002: 8
2003-2008: 6
2009-2013: 8
2014-2018: 2

Jay assigned himself the title of "Monster of the Double Entendre", and Beyoncé offered a great opportunity for these punchline-based bars. As their relationship progressed, punchlines turned into double meanings, and Jay (proportionally) used fewer and fewer. Classic mid-career examples include "I need Angelina Joleezy comfort / So I ain't gon' make a move unless I got a Plan B" from 2006's "Trouble", "Ridin' so slow but BK is from Texas" on "Empire State of Mind" (2009) and the 6 he delivered on "Venus Vs. Mars" (a Jay/Bey collab) from 2009.


1998-2002: 10
2003-2008: 20
2009-2013: 20
2014-2018: 16

While the percentage figure has gone down over time (the amount of aspirational references as a percentage of total references in a time period), the raw numbers have stayed relatively consistent. All the pre-2003 references came from "03' Bonnie & Clyde", a track heaped with bars speaking into existence the dominance the couple would exert in the 15 years to come. Since, Jay has scattered references throughout his discography and guest spots, as the lyrics turned from superficial boasting ("Me and my beautiful bitch, in the back of the bach", "And B she gotta ride G3", "30's the new 20, I'm so hot still / Better broad, better automobile") to inspirational statements ("The rest for B, whatever she wants to do / She might start an institute / She might put poor kids through school", "We gon' make a billi first / I told my wife the spiritual shit really work"). Another example of the changing disposition.


1998-2002: 1
2003-2008: 1
2009-2013: 18
2014-2018: 4

"That's My Bitch", during which he compared Beyoncé to the Mona Lisa and rapped that she belongs in mueseums, delivers 1/3 of the total aesthetic references. For some reason, Jay never pursued the "Beyoncé is hot" thread, outside of "Got the hottest chick in the game wearing my chain" in "Public Service Announcement" in 2003. When he does, it can be slightly awkward, as on 2002's "All Around The World": "Pool look like a hundred Beyoncé's / A couple fiancees", or clumsy, as on 2008's "Jockin' Jay-Z": "No that's not Pilates, her body is thick".

Speaking Directly to Beyoncé

1998-2002: 7
2003-2008: 23
2009-2013: 7
2014-2018: 16

A lot of Jay's earlier "speaking to Bey" references came via ad-libs, as on "03' Bonnie and Clyde" and "Upgrade U". Of the 53 references in this category, 23 came from Jay/Bey collaborations, meaning 30 came outside of those. Similar to the "observational" category, "4:44" and "MaNyFacedGod" delivered, with 14 between them. Most of the other instances have been Jay acting as Beyoncé's hype-man (a role she rarely reversed), like "B put these fuckboys on notice" ("Top Off"), "Talk to 'em B", "Break it down for 'em B" ("03 Bonnie & Clyde").

Observational References

1998-2002: 7
2003-2008: 11
2009-2013: 22
2014-2018: 28

Observations are simple references, usually used to provide context or simply describe a situation or fact. They're mostly harmless, and quite objective. All of Jay's early observations came from "03' Bonnie & Clyde". As they accumulated shared experiences and knowledge of each other, and began to share a life together, the number of observational references in Jay's music increased. Tracks like "4:44" and "MaNyFaCedGod" tackled deep-rooted relationship issues with a lot of observation and reflection. "I seen the innocence leave your eyes", "Not meant to cry and die alone in these mansions / Or sleep with our back turned", "Look at all we been through since August".

This category benefits from a small number of tracks that feature a lot of observations. "4:44" (16), "Venus Vs. Mars" (14), and "MaNyFacedGod" (12).

Just for fun and purposes of expanding the knowledge base, here are Jay's earliest references to Beyoncé

Jay's references to Beyoncé began in just the second year of his mainstream career, on 1998's "Lobster and Scrimp" by Timbaland. During the back and forth between Jay and Timbo in the third verse, Jay raps: "Said 'No No No,' then, 'Yeah Yeah Yeah" like she Destiny's Child", which referred to the track "No No No" released by Destiny's Child in February 1998. Much of Jay's earliest references were in search of a punchline or a double meaning. His next three references came in 2001, all in search of creating an interesting and veiled double meaning.

His bars on 2001's "People Talkin'" may be the deepest hidden gem in his discography: "If I'm readin' these chapters right / Please what have you, I breeze through Matthews". Jay's relationship with Bey's father Mathew Knowles has never been explicitly stated, but rumours have always existed that the two have never been close. 2001 was around the time Jay and Bey began spending time with one another, and Mathew was still Beyoncé's manager.

Stay tuned, there will be a similar article tracking Beyoncé's lyrical references to Jay, and a third article comparing how often the two mention each other in song.

A shout out goes to AintNoJigga. He was generous with his Jay-Z knowledge, and without him, this article wouldn't have been 100% accurate, which is the same as saying it wouldn't be worth writing. Please check him out, if you are a Jay-Z fan he will enrich your life!

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By The Numbers: Every Single Name-Drop By The Game (Studio Albums)

The Documentary, The Game's major label debut, came in 2005, and is widely regarded as a classic album. It spent 2 weeks at number 1, and 9 consecutive weeks in the top 10, selling over 2.5 million copies in the U.S., and over 1 million copies in Canada.

It also introduced him to the world as a name-dropper. Over the course of The Documentary, The Game name-drops a staggering 381 times from the 17 tracks he performs on. He dropped a total of 141 unique names on his debut record. 

What follows is an analysis of every Game studio album released on a major label. For simplicity and continuity, a name-drop is an explicit mention of a name, or the mention of an album that is synonymous with a name (for example, Nas and Illmatic, Jay-Z and Reasonable Doubt, Dr. Dre and The Chronic, Snoop Dogg and Doggystyle). 

What isn't included:
  • Labels (TDE, Cash Money, Roc-A-Fella)
  • Brands (Tom Ford, Ralph Lauren, Louboutin)
  • Movies
  • Mentions of family that aren't specific names, so mother, brother, father, aren't included
  • Organisations, gangs, or groups (Bloods, Crips, Al-Qaeda, The Black Panthers)
  • Publications (Vibe, XXL, The Source)
  • References to God or Jesus that aren't explicit name-drops (for example, "my Jesus piece" is referring to jewellery, not as Jesus name-drop)
  • Self-references, unless Game mentions himself as "The Game" or "Jayceon". 
How Often Has The Game Name-Dropped In His Entire Career?

Game name-drops almost as much as some of his peers reference themselves. From the very first  track of Game's debut studio album The Documentary in 2005, he went 119 consecutive (musical) tracks with 1 or more name-drops. It wasn't until Young N****s on his most recent studio album, 1992 (released in 2016) that he placed a song with no name-drops on a studio album. To this day, it remains the only musical track in his studio album back catalogue without a name-drop, that's 126 songs.

Who Does He Name-Drop The Most? 

The Game's respect and admiration for Dr. Dre can be quantified:

Forgetting Dre for a second, Game's other name-drops are also unsurprising. He named his two dogs 2Pac and Notorious B.I.G., and the two fallen rappers are often mentioned together on wax; 26 songs feature references to Pac and Big. Pac is referenced more often overall, likely because of his importance to the West Coast (Game's region of origin). He appears on 42 tracks, while Big pops up in 31.

The most frequent name-drops show The Game as an artist unbound by what city he is from and what color he represents. Snoop Dogg and Eazy-E are associated with The Crips, the gang rivalliny Game's The Bloods, yet both artists appear in his most mentioned names. Big, Kanye, Jay-Z, 50 Cent, Nas, Eminem, Lil Wayne and G-Unit were all from outside the West Coast, an area Game reps so hard, he devoted an entire mixtape song to name-dropping West Coast legends ("Real Gangstaz", addressed at the end of this article).

The margin by which Dre wins is almost unfathomable. Apart from Game himself, he is a full 100 name-drops ahead of his competition. He's referenced almost twice as often as Game. Between The Documentary and Doctor's Advocate Game drops some form of "Dr. Dre" on 21 consecutive tracks. On the first two albums alone he's name-dropped 98 times. In total, Dr. Dre makes up 9% of total name-drops by The Game.

Name-Drops Per Album

The Documentary is Game's most prolific name-dropping studio album, besting L.A.X., which comes second, by 137 name-drops. It's impossible to analyse every single mainstream rap album ever released, but it'd be surprising if this wasn't the most name-laden number 1 album of all time. Over the course of the 17 tracks he performs on, 381 names are dropped, equating to 22.4 per song. 141 unique names are dropped (which, as is shown at the end of the article, isn't his highest "unique name" project).

The Game's name-drop frequency dipped after The Documentary, and stayed steady for the rest of his career. In October 2015 AllHipHop reported Game was called out over social media for his prolific name-dropping on The Documentary 2 and The Documentary 2.5. His response has since been deleted, but the outlet described it as "going off". He seems aware of it, but the numbers from 1992, his 2016 album, suggest the criticism hasn't stopped him from pursuing the name-dropping technique.

What About His Guests? Do They Name Drop Just As Much?

It's possible The Game isn't even an overly productive name-dropper, maybe his numbers aren't as outlandish when compared with his guests?

Game is in the red, his guests are in the green. The figures are per-line, because it's easier than per-word (each name-drop has a different number of words in it it). The numbers above Game's bars prove that Game's frequent name-drops are in no way shared by his guests.

Note how The Documentary featured the least prolific name-drops by guests. It's possible his collaborators were influenced by the huge amount of name-drops on Game's debut, and thus attempted to adhere to his lyrical model more closely during future collaborations.

When all the numbers are counted up, Game name-drops 0.28 times per line over the course of his studio album career, compared with 0.10 by his guests, almost 3 times less.

What Was The Game Like Before He Released The Documentary? Are His Mixtapes Any Less Prolific?

To compare Game's studio albums to his other work, 3 projects have been selected. The Untold Story was an independent album released in 2004, the year before his debut studio album. The Untold Story, Vol. 2 came out 6 months after The Documentary (and was recorded shortly after The Untold Story was released, during 2004 and 2005), and Brake Lights is a mixtape from 2010.

The numbers roughly align with Game's career average, going some way to prove that this was a lyrical technique Game had decided upon before he signed his major label deal and released his debut record. Notably, the track "Cali Boyz" off his 2004 mixtape had a total of 87 name-drops, with none repeated. That's his most name-laden song in the dataset, beating "92 Bars" from 2016's 1992 by 16 names.

If you have any questions about the dataset, or you'd like any information from this dataset, please email me,, or tweet me.

I will be publishing a "top 10 Game name-drop songs" article at some point in the future as well. 

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